Khilafat Movement (1919-1922)
The Khilafat motion became a completely critical occasion withinside the political records of India. The Muslims of India had exceptional regard for the Khilafat (Caliphate) which became held through the Ottoman Empire. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the struggle are in favor of Germany.
But Turkey and Germany misplaced the struggle is and a percent typically called Istanbul Accord turned into concluded among the Allied Forces on 3rd November 1918. According to this Pact, the territories of Turkey have been to be divided amongst France, Greece, and Britain.
During the battle, the Indian Muslims had been in a completely awkward position, due to the fact that they’d a deep-rooted devotion to the caliphate. They had a profound appreciation for this holy institution.
Therefore, their help to the British Government turned into an issue to the protection and safety of the holy locations of Turkey and the situation that Turkey will now no longer be disadvantaged of its territories.
But the British Government couldn’t satisfy each of those promises. The Treaty of Savers 1920 turned into imposed on Turkey and its territories like Samaria, Thrace and Anatolia have been wrested from it and disbursed amongst European countries.
A wave of anger swept throughout the Muslin World and the Indian Muslims rose towards the British Government. Muslim leaders like Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Moulana Shoukat Ali, and others reacted towards the British Government coverage and have been placed in the back of the bars.
Thus, Muslims prepared a mass motion, which got here to be called Khilafat Movement. The goals of this motion have been
(a) To guard the Holy area of Turkey
(b) To repair the Territories of Turkey
(c) To repair the Ottoman Empire.
In December 1919 each the Khilafat Committee and Congress held their conferences concurrently at Amritsar and a delegation become organized which changed into despatched to England below the management of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar to look the British Prime Minister, Cabinet Member and Members of Parliament and to give an explanation for the Indian factor of view concerning the Khilafat. The delegation visited England in 1920.
The leaders of the delegation addressed the House of Commons and noticed the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George who paid no heed to the delegation’s demand.
The delegation stayed in London for 8 months and gained many hearts and sympathies of humans in Britain handing over speeches. However, the delegation back to India unsuccessful in October 1920.
After the unsuccessful go to England, the leaders of the Khilafat Movement found out the reality that the British have been now no longer withinside the temper to assist them.
Therefore, they found out that a brand new approach had to be followed so one can reinvigorate the zest and zeal for freedom amongst a fashionable populace. With this purpose, they determined to release a motion of Non-Co-operation.
When the leaders of the Khilafat motion introduced the Non-Co-operation Movement, Congress prolonged its complete aid to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the 2 met at Amritsar and resolved to release a rustic extensive agitation beneath neath the management of Mr. Gandhi.
The agitation becomes in opposition to the British authorities. The Jamiat-ul-Ulama Hind issued a Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat. The following factors have been blanketed in it:
1. Renunciation of all Government titles.
2. Boycott of legislature and court.
3. Withdrawal of student’s from instructional institutions.
4. Resignation from authority’s posts.
5. General civil disobedience.
As an end result of this proclamation of a fatwa, loads of hundreds of humans again the titles and stopped sending their kids to authorities faculties and faculties.
All the tremendously knowledgeable younger guys who may want to have risen to excessive authority positions bade farewell to their brilliant destiny and widespread everyday jobs withinside the non-public sector.
The vacuum created in authority’s workplaces becomes joyfully stuffed in via way of means of Hindus, at the same time as the Muslim authorities personnel willingly time-honored hunger for the sake of the Muslim cause.
Under the hypnotism of Mr. Gandhi, the Muslim ulama had issued a verdict and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab and the Muslims consequently had to migrate to a few different USA or Dar-ul-Salam. Thousands of households offered out their houses for a 10th in their price and unexpectedly left for Afghanistan, in August 1920.
As many as eighteen thousand humans marched in the direction of Afghanistan, which became not able to undergo the inflow of the humans. Thus, the Afghan government closed its frontiers. Eventually, the Muhajarins needed to go back to their houses.
A terrific range of antique men, ladies, and youngsters died on their manner at some point of returning to houses and people who fortunately attain alive their former locations. They observed themselves homeless and penniless. In truth, they confronted exceptional difficulties. Even the preachers of the Khilafat Movement found out the truth.
In January 1921, almost 3 hundred college students of diverse schools and faculties boycotted their lessons and some of the instructor’s maxima of them have been Muslims tendered their resignation.
The Movement has become so effective that the Government turned into obliged to be aware of the problem. The British Government invited Seth Jan-Muhammad Chutani, the President of the Khilafat convention to go to London to speak about the problem.
A delegation beneath neath has management visited London and mentioned the sentiment of Muslims however the delegation additionally lower back unsuccessfully.
The Khilafat Movement got here to a stop while lots of Indians have been placed in the back of the bar. The leaders regardless of their fine efforts couldn’t keep the Hindu-Muslim Unity.
One of the principle motives which triggered a demise blow to the Khilafat Movement changed into the oblique statement of Gandhi to stop the Non-Co-operation Movement.
Gandhi used an incident of arson on February 1922, whilst a violent mob set on hearthplace a police chowki at Chora Churi at district Gorakpur, burning twenty-one constables to loss of life as an excuse to name off the non-cooperation motion.
It adversely affected the Khilafat Movement which concept to be an essential part of the motion. In 1924, Kamal Ataturk installation a central authority on a democratic foundation in Turkey through abolishing Khilafat as a device of presidency which served a completing blow to the Khilafat Movement in India and those had misplaced something hobby that they’d withinside the motion.
Failure of the Movement:
1. The abolition of Khilafat with the aid of using Kamal Ataturk changed into an extreme blow on Khilafat motion withinside the sub-continent and he exiled Sultan Abdul Majeed, a helpless Caliph, and abolished Khilafat as an institution, because of this all agitational sports got here to an give up withinside the Sub-continent.
2. The Hijrat Movement made the Muslims upset with the Khilafat Movement because of the announcement of India as Darul-Harab. A huge quantity of Muslims migrated from Sindh and N.W.F.P to Afghanistan. The Afghan government did now no longer permit them to move the border. After this tragic occasion people who had recommended the Hijrat motion come to realize their mistake which ended in the failure of motion.
3. When Khilafat motion has become mature and turned into achieving its climax. A tragic incident passed off withinside the village of Chora Churi wherein the police opened hearthplace at the procession of a nearby resident. The agitated mob in counteraction set the police station on fire which in end result twenty-one police constables have been burnt alive. Due to this incident, the Ali brother and different Muslim chief have been arrested and Mr. Gandhi does away with the motion. As an effect, the motion misplaced its intensity.
The Khilafat motion became began out to protect the Khilafat in Turkey, a trouble that basically belonged to the Muslims. With the involvement of Hindus, the Movement grew forceful and there has been an opportunity to assembly the motion with success.
The British Government become the not unusual place enemy of the Muslims and Hindus. That is why each of the countries persisted in united efforts towards it.
But the distinction among the Hindus and Muslims has become even greater suggested and lots of different activities confirmed that the competition of Hindus to British Government turned into now no longer lasting.
When Khilafat Movement reach success the Hindus especially Mr. Gandhi gave up on motion and left the Muslims on their own and triggered the failure of the Movement.
The Khilafat motion proved that Hindus and Muslims have been unique international locations as they couldn’t hold the team spirit and couldn’t stay together.
The Khilafat Movement created political awareness among a number of Indian Muslims, which stimulated them to represent any other motion for then Independence. Thus, they began out Pakistan Movement.